Eva Jiménez Mariscal and Marina Martín Campos.


BREAST CANCER


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-What is it?
-What people can be affected by it?
-Can it be prevented?
-Can it be cured?
-Symptoms
-Diagonosis
-Consequences
-Conclusions.


-WHAT IS IT?
Breats cancer is a malignant tumor that is originated in the breast gland's tissue. This tumor is created by an alteration of a cell that will divide wildly.

-WHAT PEOPLE CAN BE AFFECTED BY IT?
It is frequently found in women, but there is a little percentage that affects men.
Nowadays, the incident rate is increasing because of aging and an earlier diagnosis.
It's estimated that risk to have breast cancer in our life is approximately about 1 out of 8 women.

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-CAN IT BE PREVENTED?
Breast cancer cannot be prevented, but the risk to have it can be avoided by different ways: doing frequent exercise, avoiding overweight and obesity after the menopause, avoiding constant consumption of alcohol, or the hormonal treatment after the menopause.
But in cases where the risk to have it is very high, we can use several therapeutic options like prophylactic mastectomy or chemoprevention.
  • Prophylactic mastectomy. Is the extraction of part or all of the mammary tissue, in a healthy breast to reduce the risk to breast cancer's development (It doesn't eliminate cancer).
  • Chemoprevention. It reduces the risk to have breast cancer in women with benign wound of the mammary.

-CAN IT BE CURED?
Breast cancer is one of the few cancerous illness that have easy diagnostic, in other words, before you can feel any symptom. Also, this diagnosis is essential because the possibilities of cure are practically of 100%.
The most frequent diagnosis is mammogram, which is X-ray of breasts to catch the wound in first stages of the disease.

-SYMPTOMS
In the first phases of cancer there aren’t lot of symptoms, but women go to the doctor for this reasons:
  1. A nodule appears in the breast.
  2. She has mammary ache when she feels it.
  3. Change of the size of one of them.
  4. Irregularities in the outline.
  5. Less movement of one of them when she raises up her arms.
  6. Alteration of the breast's skin.
  7. Changes in the nipple.
  8. A nodule appears in the armpit.
  9. Tiredness and bones ache sometimes appear.
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-DIAGNOSIS
After the person has felt some of the previous symptoms, he/she should go to the doctor, who will made some proofs:
  • Historical clinical training, interview to know about his/her precedents, family, life habit and other problems of health.
  • Physical examination, observations of the breasts.
  • Workup, like a blood and urine tests, a mammogram or a sonogram.
After the doctor confirms that the person has breast cancer, he/she will start a treatment that can depend of his/her age, physical state, hormonal state, side of tumour, phase of illness… and depending of the treatment it will be surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormonotherapy.

-CONSEQUENCES
Subsequently the breast can produce lymphedema, because the size of the arm gets bigger because interstitial liquid cannot circulate easily in the arm of the intervention.

-CONCLUSIONS
The conclusions for breast cancer are:
  • Breast cancer can be is very mortal for many people.
  • Breast cancer is a terminal disease, but if you follow good steps and if you look after yourself, you won't have any problem with this disease.

- GLOSSARY
Breast cancer: cáncer de mama.
Aging: envejecimiento.
Overweight: con sobrepeso, obeso.
Mammogram: mamografía.
Nodule: nódulo, bulto.
Outline: contorno.
Nipple: pezón.
Armpit: axila.
Tiredness: cansancio, fatiga.
Ache: doler.
Precedents: precedentes, antecedentes.
Workup: pruebas diagnósticas.
Sonogram: ecografía.
Subsequently: posteriormente.
Lymphedema: linfoma.
Look after yourself: cuidarte.

Teacher's notes:quite well. You've correct the mistakes.

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